Henry S. Fifield – The Flume Photographer (Part 2)
See August 7, 2021 blog entry for Part 1.
Henry S. Fifield was a well-known photographer most associated with his work at The Flume in the White Mountains of New Hampshire during the 1860s and 1870s. In addition, he also photographed and published a number of quality views from throughout the northern Catskills.
H. S. Fifield business imprint. Flume No. 182. 1870. J. Paul Getty Museum.
Family Trade: Albert G. Fifield and Moses Fifield
Although rare, there are also views of people at the Flume that were taken by a photographer with the name A. G. Fifield. This is likely Henry’s nephew, Albert G. Fifield, i.e., son of Henry’s brother, also named Albert G. Fifield (1811-1874). The 1870 United States census lists Albert, the nephew, with an occupation of “Photograph Artist” while working at the town of Franklin, in Merrimack County, New Hampshire.
Albert was born in 1844 at New Hampton, New Hampshire. He honorably served with the Company C, 12th Regiment of the New Hampshire Volunteers in the Union Army during the Civil War. Albert enlisted as a Private on August 15, 1862 and mustered into service on September 5, 1862. He was severely wounded on May 3, 1863 during the bloody battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia, a wound that caused Albert to lose much use of his right arm. He was honorably discharged on November 17, 1863 at Concord, New Hampshire.
The Chancellorsville battle of May 3rd where Albert was wounded is considered amongst the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. The 12th New Hampshire Regiment “suffered 317 casualties out of roughly 580 combat effectives (a casualty rate of 54.7 percent), the highest number of any regiments, Union or Confederate. During the few hours of fighting around Fairview on the morning of 3 May, a staggering seventy-two men and officers were killed or mortally wounded. The high number of casualties is indicative of the 12th’s position during the battle. In its first major engagement, the regiment became separated from the rest of its brigade and stubbornly held its ground for nearly two hours before finally retreating in the face of an overwhelming Confederate advance.” (Marzoli, Nathan A. “‘Their Loss Was Necessarily Severe”: The 12th New Hampshire at Chancellorsville.” Army History, Fall 2016, No. 101 (Fall 2016), pp. 6-29.) For a deeper understanding of the 12th NH Regiment fight at the Chancellorsville, see Nathan A. Marzoli’s “‘Their Loss Was Necessarily Severe”: The 12th New Hampshire at Chancellorsville.”
After his distinguished service in the Civil War Albert G. Fifield married Nancy Jane Farnham on November 4, 1866. Together Albert and Nancy had three children, but it may not have been the happiest of marriages as they would divorce after 30 years of marriage in 1897. Albert would remarry that same year to Alice B. Milmore. Albert passed away in 1903 and is buried at Hilldale Cemetery at Haverhill, Massachusetts. Although Albert’s photographic legacy is difficult to establish, his contributions to his country as a soldier are not, and are worthy of recognition in itself.
In 1875, The New Hampshire Business Directory listed, unsurprisingly, Henry S. Fifield as working as a photographer at New Hampton. However, that year the directory also included a photographer by the name Moses Fifield also working at New Hampton. This is Henry’s nephew (1845-1930), i.e., son of Henry’s brother Albert G. Fifield (1811-1874).
Moses Fifield was born on August 10, 1845. On the 1870 United States census, at nearly age 25, Moses was listed with the occupation of photographer while residing in New Hampton. At the time he was living with his parents Albert and Eliza. He was married twice, first to Eva M. (Wells) Fifield (1853-1898) at New Hampton on December 24, 1872. The marriage ceremony was performed by E. H. Prescott. Eva died of breast cancer at Haverhill, Massachusetts on July 7, 1898. His second marriage was to Louisa M. (Hamp) Fifield (1862-1927) at Peabody, Massachusetts on July 3, 1902. The ceremony was performed by L. J. Thomas, “minister of the gospel.” Louisa immigrated to the United States from England in 1891. Perhaps Moses and Louisa met at work as the 1900 United States census lists her occupation as “shoe stitcher.” She died at the age of 64 of chronic myocarditis on September 20, 1927. Both Eva and Louisa are buried at the New Hampton Village Cemetery.
By 1880 Moses had moved on from his photographic career. On the 1880 United States census Moses was listed with an occupation of “Works in Shoe Shop.” This would be his profession for the rest of his life. At the time he was living at the town of Natick in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. In 1900, the United States census listed Moses, while living at New Hampton, with an occupation of Cobbler. In 1920, the United States census listed Moses with an occupation of shoemaker, again while living at New Hampton.
Moses passed away at 84 years of age at the New Hampshire State Hospital at Concord on January 3, 1930. The cause of death was chronic myocarditis, which had been an ongoing health issue for several years. Contributing causes were listed as arteriosclerosis and chronic nephritis. He is buried at the New Hampton Village Cemetery.
The 1870 United States census listed Henry Fifield, age 40, as living with his wife Annie, age 35, at the town of New Hampton. The value of Henry’s real estate was $1,000 while the value of his personal estate was a very prosperous $5,000. The 1860s decade was a successful one for Fifield as his personal estate had increased by $4,900, since the value of his personal estate on the 1860 census had been valued at only $100. Annie was listed as having been born in Ireland, and both her father and mother were listed as having been of “foreign birth.” Henry’s occupation, despite a near decade of work at the Flume as a photographer, was listed as “Carpenter.” Annie’s occupation was listed as Milliner.
In 1871 Fifield branched out from his photography business to publish a new edition Map of the White Mountains, New Hampshire. This highly regarded historical map was first published in 1858 by Harvey Boardman (1833-1863), a surveyor and engineer from Griswold, Connecticut. The Boardman map proved popular, being reissued in 1859, 1860 and 1864. The map, designed for the tourist market, contained details around topography such as major peaks, rivers, and lakes, locations of local hotels and inns, locations of sawmills and churches, and details of the roads, footpaths and bridle paths. The Boardman map also contained a table of travel distances between key locations in the White Mountains and nine superb engravings of various hotels and scenic locations.
In 1874, in addition to his work in New Hampshire, Fifield also worked in New York City, presumably during the off-tourist season. The Brooklyn City and Business City Directory for 1874 listed Hy. S. Fifield as a “photographer.” His home was located at 50 Nostrand Avenue, which is located in the South Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn.
On the 1875 New York State census Fifield, age 45, was recorded as living in the 6th Election District in the city of Brooklyn, Kings County, New York. He was living with his wife Anna. They resided at 54 Taylor Street, a brick house valued at $5,000, which is located in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn. Fifield was listed with an occupation of “Landscape Artist.” Although rare, Fifield published a variety of New York City stereoviews of buildings, markets, boats in the harbor and more.
In 1877, The Brooklyn City and Business Directory listed Henry Fifield as an “Artist.” He was located at 54 Taylor. In March, 1877 Henry and his wife Annie were divorced through her abandonment.
In addition to his prodigious work in the photography industry Fifield can also be credited as an inventor and owner of several United States patents. On March 30, 1877 Fifield filed with the United States Patent Office for the “Improvement in Lamp-Chimneys.” With patent number 199,815 being granted on January 28, 1878, Fifield claimed that “the object of my invention is the construction of a lamp-chimney in such a way that small cooking-vessels may be safely placed upon it, and cooking performed in such vessels; and the novelty in the chimney lies in the form, configuration, and arrangement of the top of the same, to adapt it to the purposes before mentioned.”
H. S. Fifield. Lamp-Chimney. Patent 199,815. Patented Jan. 29, 1878.
On May 21, 1877 Fifield filed for a new patent regarding a “Lamp for cooking.” Patent number 204,144 was granted on May 28, 1878. In the patent application Fifield wrote of his invention. “The advantages of my construction for use in the sick-room, or in the summer season when it is not desirable to use cooking-stoves, are apparent upon observation. I am aware that lamps for cooking were well known before my invention hereinbefore described, and also lamps with separate and removable cooking attachments; and also cooking-lamps wherein base and supporting plates were used; and I am not aware that there is novelty in any of the elements employed by me; but I do not know that the same elements as constructed by me have ever been used in the same combination.”
Henry S. Fifield signature.
On June 21, 1879 Fifield filed for another patent with the United States Patent Office, this one being for the “Improvement in Heating Attachments for Lamps.” Patent number 218,950 was granted on August 26, 1879. “The object I have in view is to produce a cheap and simple attachment for lamps to convert them into lamp-heaters for heating water, and for the numerous other uses to which such devices are put, which can be applied to the ordinary kerosene-lamps now upon the market and will be safe and effective in use. My device is a chimney attachment, to be placed upon the lamp when the ordinary chimney is removed; and I propose to make it of a number of sizes, corresponding with the different sizes of chimneys. These attachments can be sold alone, to be applied to lamps already owned by the purchaser, or can be sold with the lamps of proper sizes, either with or without an ordinary lightning chimney.”
H. S. Fifield. Heating Attachment for Lamps. Patent 218,950. Patented Aug. 26, 1879.
In 1880 Fifield, age 55, was living in the town of New Hampton, as per the United States census. He was boarding with the widowed, 69-year-old Betsy C. Swan, who listed with an occupation off “House Keeper.” Fifield was listed with a marital status of “single” and with an occupation of “Artist.”
In March, 1880 Fifield suffered a severe setback due to a devastating fire at the village of New Hampton. A set of buildings owned by Fifield were both destroyed, including his photography rooms and a residence rented out to Professor F. W. Preston. Two adjacent homes, that of Charles Dickerman and J. C. Fox, were both badly damaged as well. Fifield’s losses were estimated at $3,000, with insurance covering about $1,500 of the loss. The suspected cause of the fire was “the careless disposition of ashes.” (“Losses By Fire.” Boston Post. March 30, 1880.)
As earlier mentioned, it has been estimated that Fifield took over 1,000 negatives a year at the Flume and in the White Mountains. Fifield’s own advertising from 1873 to 1879 stated that he maintained past negatives for 10 years. Using these two pieces of information it can be assumed that the March 1880 fire destroyed well over 10,000 negatives. Also destroyed would have been Fifield’s negatives from his work in New York City and in the Catskills. The financial loss may have been $3,000, but it was an even greater loss for photographers and for historians.
In addition to his photographic work in New Hampshire Fifield also photographed and published a wide range of Catskills stereoviews. Among the sites photographed include the Rip Van Winkle House, the Laurel House, Fawn’s Leap, Moore’s Bridge Falls and Kaaterskill Falls.
The Catskills of the 19th century were then considered one of the premier travel destinations in the country, if not the world. They had long attracted prominent artists including painters, writers and photographers. Of all the localities in the Catskills none attracted more attention that the northern, Greene County region of Kaaterskill Clove and the picturesque scenery around the famed Catskill Mountain House.
Other photographers of the era who figured prominently in Catskills history, to whom Fifield can be fairly compared, included the E. & H. T. Anthony Company and John Jacob Loeffler. The E. & H. T. Anthony company was the largest 19th-century manufacturer and distributor of cameras and photographic supplies in the United States. The company was founded by Edward Anthony (1818-1888) and his brother Henry T. Anthony (1814-1884). Regionally, the company produced many of the greatest Catskills views of the 19th century. The Catskills stereoviews were incorporated into several series including “The Artistic Series,” “The Glens of the Catskills,” and “Winter in the Catskills.”
John Jacob Loeffler, one of the great Catskills photographers of all time, made hundreds of stereoviews of the Catskills throughout the 1870s and 1880s. The photographs were part of the series titled Catskill Mountain Scenery. Besides his Catskills work Loeffler also operated a successful studio on Staten Island and published a number of different series from around New York and the Hudson Valley including Scenery of Lake Mohonk and Vicinity, West Point and Vicinity, and Sailor’s Snug Harbor, Staten Island, N.Y.
No. 18. The Falls below the Bridge, Cauterskill Clove. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1865). The Falls below the [B]ridge, Cauterskill Clove, Catskill Mts. N.Y. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-a342-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
No. 22. Fawn’s Leap, Cauterskill Clove. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1865). Fawn's Leap, Cauterskill Clove, Catskill Mts. N.Y. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-a344-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
No. 34. Rip Van Winkle House, Sleepy Hollow. Catskill Mts. N.Y. Massachusetts Collection Online.
No. 34. Rip Van Winkle House, Sleepy Hollow. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1865). Rip Van Winkle House, Sleepy Hollow, Catskill Mts. N.Y. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-5ed0-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
No. 69. Mountain Home. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1865). Mountain Home, Catskill Mts. N.Y. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-a346-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
No. 70. View of the Grove at the Front of the Laurel House. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1865). View of the Grove at the front of the Laurel House, Catskill Mts. N.Y. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-a348-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
No. 71. Cauterskill Falls and Laurel House, from Prospect Rock. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1870). Catskill Falls and Laurel House, from Prospect Rock, Catskill Mt. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-a34a-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
No. 73. View from the top of Cauterskill Falls. Catskill Mts. N.Y. J. Paul Getty Museum.
No. 75. Cauterskill Falls From below the second Fall. Catskill Mts. N.Y. J. Paul Getty Museum.
No. 201. Laurel House. Catskill Mts. N.Y.
The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. (1865). Laurel House, Catskill Mts., N.Y. Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e1-a34c-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
Fifield’s photographs are contained within several collections throughout the United States. Select examples include the New York Public Library, the Massachusetts Collections Online, the Eastman Museum, the New Hampshire Historical Society, the Library of Congress and the J. Paul Getty Museum at Los Angeles, California.
There is no doubt that Fifield’s photographic legacy is secure. He produced thousands of photographs of visitors at the wildly rugged Flume Gorge, which was and still is one of the most popular natural sites in the state of New Hampshire. He photographed the natural beauty throughout the White Mountains, and also captured compelling photographs of the legendary Professor John Merrill at his famous Pool. Outside of his home state of New Hampshire Fifield published a significant number of scenic stereoviews of the historic Catskills region as well as publishing many unique, and today rare, photos of New York City.
Henry S. Fifield passed away on May 2, 1881 from “acute nephritis,” or inflammation of the kidneys. His death was reported by Doctor Fowler and Doctor Calley. The death certificate from the state registrar of vital statistics reported Fifield as having died at Bristol, at 50 years of age, that he born at New Hampton, that he was single and had an occupation of photographer. Fifield is buried on Shingle Camp Hill Road at the New Hampton Village Cemetery.
Comments and Corrections
If you should have any additional information, comments or corrections about the photographer Henry S. Fifield please add a comment to this page, or send me an email using the contact page. Where possible, please include any available references. Thank you.
Selected References and Bibliography
“Alleged Conspiracy.” Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 11, 1874.
“Among the Mountains.” New England Farmer. August 26, 1871.
“The Avalanche in Franconia Notch.” Argus and Patriot. Montpelier, Vermont. July 18, 1883.
Bartlett, Capt. A. W. “Chapter V. Chancellorsville.” History of the Twelfth Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers in the War of the Rebellion. Concord, N.H.: Ira C. Evans, 1897.
“Breezes from the Flume.” Boston Post. October 2, 1878.
(The) Brooklyn City Directory. Lain & Company. 1878.
(The) Brooklyn City and Business Directory. Geo. T. Lain. 1873.
(The) Brooklyn City and Business Directory. Lain & Company. 1874, 1876, 1877.
Burgess, G. A., Ward, J. T. Free Baptist Cyclopaedia. Free Baptist Cyclopaedia Co., 1889.
Cathcart, William. The Baptist Encyclopaedia. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1881.
Chamberlin, Gary N. “Franklin White, Pioneer Photographer. Stereo World. Vol. 2, No. 4. September-October 1975.
“The Changed Flume.” Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. Bangor, Maine. July 10, 1883.
Child, Hamilton. Gazetteer of Grafton County, N. H. 1709-1886. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Journal Company, 1886.
“City News in Brief.” Brooklyn Times Union. July 3, 1875.
Clough and Kimball. [Amos Franklin Clough (1833-1872), Howard Algernon Kimball (1845-1929).] Views taken on the Summit of Mt. Washington during the winter of 1870-71. Concord, NH: Clough & Kimball, 1871.
Coke, Van Deren. One Hundred Years of Photographic History. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1975.
“County Court, Kings County.” Brooklyn Times Union. January 7, 1878.
“The Courts.” Brooklyn Daily Union. August 2, 1875.
Darrah, William C. “American Sentimental Stereographs.” Stereo World. Vol. 1, No. 3. July-August 1974.
Darrah, William C. The World of Stereographs. Gettysburg, PA: W. C. Darrah, 1977.
Davis, Melody. Sentiment and Irony: Weller’s Stereoscopic Treasures. https://scalar.usc.edu/works/fg-weller-/index. Accessed February 19, 2021.
Fairbanks, Edward T. The Town of St Johnsbury VT. St. Johnsbury, VT: The Cowles Press, 1914.
Fifield, Henry Edward. “Fifield Family Records.” Collections of The Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA.
Fifield, H. S. Map of the White Mountains, New Hampshire. From original surveys by Harvey Boardman. 1858. Revised by H. S Fifield, 1871. Boston: J. H. Bufford, 1871.
Fifield, H. S. “Lamp-Chimney.” U.S. Patent 199,815, issued January 29, 1878.
Fifield, H. S. “Lamp for Cooking.” U.S. Patent 204,144, issued May 28, 1878.
Fifield, H. S. “Heating Attachment for Lamps.” U.S. Patent 218,950, issued August 26, 1879.
“(The) Franconian County.” The New York Times. August 15, 1880.
“From the White Mountains.” Vermont Chronicle. July 27, 1872.)
Kelly, Frank H. Reminiscences of New Hampton, N.H. Worcester, MA: Charles Hamilton, 1889.
Griscom, Andrew. “John Merrill. Philosopher of the Pool.” Stereo World. Volume 8, No. 4. September/October 1881. pp. 12-14.
Hitchcock, Charles H. Mount Washington in Winter or The Experiences of a Scientific Expedition Upon the Highest Mountain in New England. Boston: Chick and Andrews, 1871.
Hurd, D. Hamilton. “History of New Hampton.” History of Merrimack and Belknap counties, New Hampshire. Philadelphia, PA: J. W. Lewis & co., 1885.
Jackson, James R. History of Littleton, New Hampshire. Cambridge, MA: The University Press, 1905.
Kilbourne, Frederick W. Chronicles of the White Mountains. Boston: Houghton Miflin Company, 1916.
King, Thomas Starr. The White Hills; Their Legends, Landscape, and Poetry. Boston: Woolworth, Ainsworth and Company, 1869.
Kilbourne, Frederick W. “A Closed Chapter of White Mountain History, The Franconia Notch as a Summer Resort.” Appalachia. Volume 16. Boston: The Appalachian Mountain Club, 1924-1926.
“Losses by Fire.” Boston Post. March 30, 1880.
Marzoli, Nathan A. “‘Their Loss Was Necessarily Severe’: The 12th New Hampshire at Chancellorsville.” Army History, Fall 2016, No. 101 (Fall 2016), pp. 6-29.
McShane, Linda. “The Littleton View Company.” Stereo World. Vol. 19, No. 6. January-February 1993.
Merrill, John. Cosmogony or Thoughts on Philosophy. Madison, WI: “The Independent,” Book and Job Print, 1879.
Merrill, John. Lecture Delivered at the Flume House Parlor, before a Company of Editors, on the System of the Earth’s being Hollow. Gloucester, MA: John S.E. Rogers, 1858.
Musgrove, Richard W. History of the Town of Bristol, Grafton County, New Hampshire. Bristol, N.H.: R. W. Musgrove, 1904.
(The) New England Business Directory. 1860, 1865, 1868, 1877.
(The) New Hampshire Business Directory. 1870, 1872, 1874.
(The) New Hampshire Register and Farmer’s Almanac. 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1878, 1880, 1881.
“(A) New Toning Process.” The Photographic News. Vol. 4, No. 116. November 23, 1860.
Passing Through: The Allure of the White Mountains. Inaugural Exhibition February 23, 2013 – February 16, 2014. Museum of the White Mountains, Plymouth State University. 2013.
“Policeman Maloy Exonerated.” Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 19, 1874.
“(The) President of the Photographers’ Association of America.” The Photographic Times. Vol. 21, No. 512. July 10, 1891.
(The) Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide. December 22, 1877; February 9, 1878.
Reverend Ollapod. “Vacation Rambles – No. 11.” Lawrence Daily Journal. August 18, 1869.
“Sent to the Inebriates’ Home.” Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 14, 1874.
Sheppard, Walter Lee, Jr. The Descendants of William Fifield. New Haven, CT: Tuttle, Morehouse, and Taylor Co., 1940.
Southall, Thomas W. The Kilburn Brothers Stereoscopic View Company. 1977.
Sweetser, M. F. The White Mountains: A Handbook for Travellers. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1881.
“A Terrific Storm.” The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. July 8, 1883.
“That Fallen Boulder.” Hartford Courant. Hartford, Connecticut. August 2, 1883.
Thwing. “Franconia Mountains.” The Berkshire County Eagle. September 5, 1867.
Thwing, Rev. E. P. “White Mountain Memories.” Oliver Optic’s Magazine. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1867.
Treadwell, T. K., William C. Darrah, and Wolfgang Sell. Photographers of the United States of America.
National Stereoscopic Association (1994, updated, 2003). Accessed February 19, 2021. Available at: www.stereoworld.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/USPHOTOGRAPHERS.pdf.
“A Trip to the White Mountains.” Buffalo Morning Express. August 26, 1862.
“A Trip to the White Mountains on Foot.” Green-Mountain Freeman. September 19, 1865.
Walker, Ray. “N. W. Pease. Granite State Photographer.” Stereo World. Volume 1, No. 5. November-December 1974.
“Walks in the White Mountains.” Evening Star. September 11, 1876.
“The White Mountains. –No. 2.” Hartford Courant. Hartford, Connecticut. August 6, 1883.
“White Mountain Letters.” Monmouth Democrat. September 18, 1884.
The White Mountains: A Handbook for Travellers. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1881.
Woodford, E. M, and Smith & Peavey. Map of Belknap County, New Hampshire. Philadelphia: Smith & Peavey, 1859. Map. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2012587751/>.
The Yale Literary Magazine. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1862.
Family Search. www.familysearch.org.
Find A Grave. www.findagrave.com.
Hathitrust Digital Library. www.hathitrust.org.
Internet Archive. www.archive.org.
J. Paul Getty Museum. www.getty.edu.
Library of Congress. www.loc.gov/collections.
Massachusetts Collections Online. www.digitalcommonwealth.org.
New Hampshire State Parks. www.nhstateparks.org.
New York Public Library, Digital Collections. www.digitalcollections.nypl.org.
Old Fulton New York Post Cards. www.fultonhistory.com.