William England and His 1859 Tour of the Catskills (Part 8)

April 09, 2022  •  Leave a Comment

Introduction

 

William England (1830-1896) was a 19th century British photographer who was widely known for his travel images. He was an early adopter of photography, operating a studio in the late 1840s, less than ten years after the daguerreotype was created by French inventor Louis Daguerre. England’s 1859 trip through the United States, including a visit to the Catskills, and Canada gained widespread praise. His image of Charles Blondin tightrope walking across the Niagara Gorge is among the top selling stereoviews of all time. Although largely forgotten today, William England was considered one of the great photographers of his era.

 

 

Continued from Part 7.

 

Exhibits

 

“. . . a fine series of views in the Tyrol, Italy, Switzerland, and on the Rhine, by the well-known photographer, Mr. W. England. For transparency, relief, and pictorial effect these beautiful little photographs are unsurpassed by any in the exhibition.”

 

 

England exhibited his work widely, received many awards and served as judge on countless leading exhibitions of the day. A few examples of England’s exhibitions, as either exhibitor or judge, are listed below.

 

  • 1858. London Photographic Society Exhibition. The exhibited photographs were all of Ireland and were attributed to the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Company. Number 5, “Stereoscopic Views in Ireland.” Number 384, “View in Killarney.” Number 423, “Glangariff, near Killarney.” Number 591, “View in Killarney.” Number 606, “St. Boyne’s Cross, County Louth.” Number 627, “Ross Castle, Killarney.” Number 649, “Blarney Castle, Co. Cork.” Number 657, “Lake of Killarney.” Number 659, “Holy Cross Abbey, Co. Tipperary.” Number 661, “Glena Mountain, Killarney.” Number 664, “Vale of Avoca, Co. Wicklow.” Number 666, “General View of Killarney.” Number 691, “Tore Waterfall, Killarney.”

 

  • 1860. London Photographic Society Exhibition. The exhibited photographs, titled “Stereographic Views in America,” were attributed to the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Company.

 

  • 1861. London Photographic Society Exhibition. The exhibited photographs were attributed to the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Company. Number 610, “Portion of the Horse-shoe Fall from below, Winter Scene.” Number 611, “The American Fall, Niagara.” Number 612, “The Victoria Bridge, Montreal.” Number 613, “Rustic Bridge, Sleepy Hollow.” Number 614, “The American Fall, from Luna Island.” Number 615, “Scene from Ottawa, Canada.” Number 616, “Niagara from Prospect Point.”

 

  • 1862. International Exhibition. The exhibited photographs were attributed to the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Company. Number 229, "Quebec." Number 234, "Rustic Bridge, Sleepy Hollow - American View." Number 244, "Stereoscopic Views of Paris - Instantaneous." Number 245, "Stereoscopic Views of Paris - Instantaneous." Number 246, "Natural Bridge - Kentucky." Number 248, "Niagara Falls." "Number 251, "Kauterskill Cavern - American View."

 

England received an award for his instantaneous work, “stereoscopic pictures of Paris (exhibited in name of the London Stereoscopic Co.)”

 

A medal for “photographic excellence” was awarded to the London Stereoscopic Company “for great excellence in photographic views, and especially a series of stereoscopic pictures of Paris.”[1]

 

“The Jurors of Class XIV . . . [have bestowed] the medal for the best series of instantaneous street views ever executed – the Paris views, by Mr. W. England – upon the London Stereoscopic Company, who have not the remotest claim to any share of the merit due, either photographic or manufacturing.”[2]

 

“One of the most interesting branches of modern photography is the production of instantaneous pictures, such as street scenes, and marine pictures, with breaking waves, shipping, fine cloud and atmospheric effects. In the production of a street scene with vehicles and pedestrians in rapid motion, and all the bustle of a London main thoroughfare or a Parisian boulevard, Mr. W. England, of the London Stereoscopic Company, stands unrivalled.”[3]

 

  • 1863. London Photographic Society. England exhibited an extensive number of views from the International Exhibition of 1862.

 

  • 1863. Glasgow Photographic Association Exhibition, Merchants’ Hall, Glasgow. “And lastly, the dissolving views for the magic lantern had been kindly furnished by Mr. England for that occasion; they were from negatives taken by himself, the transparencies being printed on tannin plates. They had thus every reason to hope that the evening would result in the satisfaction of all present.”[4]

 

  • 1865. Photographic Society of London Exhibition. England was awarded a medal “for landscapes.” “Mr. England exhibits a fine collection of his very fine views of Swiss scenery, taken on 9 by 7 plates, a size which has been somewhat neglected of late. Mr. England has shown rare skill in dealing with difficult subjects; Swiss scenery has been too often rendered familiar to the public as hard and snowy in a pictorial as well as a physical sense; but by a judicious mastery over his materials and art, Mr. England has produced some grand representations of Alpine scenery full of gradation and tone. Possibly a little less depth in printing would be more pleasing to the majority of visitors, but altogether there is a degree of uniform excellence not hitherto attained in pictures of this kind. Mr. England also exhibits a frame of stereoscopic pictures of the same scenery, which leave little to desire.”[5]

 

“If a piece of sculpture be judiciously lighted it forms one of the most effective of photographic subjects. Halse’s Advance, Australia! Photographed by Mr. England, shows more modelling and stereoscope effect than we are accustomed to look for in a monocular picture.”[6] This photograph was again exhibited by England in 1872 at the 17th Photographic Society of London Exhibition.

 

  • 1865. Dublin International Exhibition, Ireland. Exhibit number 107, “Cabinet and stereoscopic photographs of Switzerland and Savoy, taken by the wet collodion process, in four frames.”

 

“The admirable Swiss views of England, so full of quiet harmony, so free from the hardness which many photographers of similar scenery mistake for brilliancy.”[7]

 

England received a medal “for excellence in his manipulation and artistic effect.”[8]

 

“Mr. England’s Alpine views claim admiring attention. He exhibits several frames of 9 x 7 views, and a large collection of stereoscopic pictures of Swiss scenery, all exhibiting the well-known perfection for which this artist’s works are famous.”[9]

 

  • 1865. North London Photographic Exhibition. “The displays of landscapes at this exhibition includes some of the finest examples of this branch of the art we have seen. When we mention the names of Mudd, Bedford, and England, it will be readily understood that the pictures are good and we may add that the contributions are amongst the finest we have ever seen them exhibit.”[10]

 

  • 1866. Photographic Society of Scotland Exhibition. “The Exhibition is rather strong in landscapes, prominent among which are the Alpine views of Mr. England. Some of these we have never seen surpassed for delicacy, choice of subject, or excellence of manipulation.”[11]

 

  • 1867. Paris Universal Exhibition, Champ de Mars, Paris, France. England was awarded a silver medal for “views.” “W. England exhibits only views 9 x 7, or about that size, and I saw about forty of them. Whether all who deserved silver medals have got them or not, no one will doubt Mr. England’s right to the award that has been made to him. His productions are all well printed, and occupy good positions. The pictures are well known, and need no praise from me. He shows nothing but views, if we except a group of ecclesiastics, seemingly taken in the open air; but the picture is not essentially a landscape. It is clear and clean enough, but stiff, formal, and poor as a specimen of photographic art.”[12]

 

  • 1867. Exhibition Soiree of the London Photographic Society. “Mr. England exhibited very largely. That all his pictures were excellent it would be superfluous to remark. A frame of dry-plate subjects mainly claim our attention here. These were not in any sense inferior to those by the wet process hanging side by side with the artist’s works. There is all the detail, softness, and gradation in Mr. England’s dry plates that characterize his pictures by the wet process . . .Mr. England’s series of views comprised no stereographic subjects, those exhibited being from half-plate up to 9 x 7 inches.”[13]

 

  • 1867. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. “Mr. William England, a number of pretty and well photographed Swiss views.”[14]

 

“. . . and another second silver medal had been given to Mr. William England, for his views of Swiss scenery.”[15]

 

  • 1868. Photographic Society of London Exhibition. “Mr. England sends a frame of the capital results obtained during the summer in the Savoy.”[16]

 

“Amongst the other landscape photographers Mr. England and Mr. Bedford stand unrivalled in their peculiar branches. The views in the Tyrol, lately taken by Mr. England, are so excellent that they cannot but add to that gentleman’s high reputation.”[17]

 

  • 1869. Dutch Photographic Exhibition, at Groningen. England received a silver medal for landscapes.[18]

 

  • 1869. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society Exhibition. “Also 411, by Mr. W. England, a case of views on the Tyrol, very fine indeed.”[19]

 

  • 1869. Photographic Society of London Exhibition. Number 136, Stereo views of Switzerland and Savoy. Number 137, Eight views in Switzerland (wet plates). Number 138, Eight views in Switzerland (dry plates).

 

“Mr. England was, as usual, admirable in Swiss scenery. His contributions, besides their pictorial excellence, had another special source of interest, as he exhibited, side by side, a frame of eight examples of the wet process, and eight examples, from similar subjects, of dry plate work. Both were, as in all Mr. England’s work, in all respects exceedingly fine, but it was possible for the critical observer to note a little more hardness and wiriness in the prints from dry plates than in those from wet plate negatives.”[20]

 

“Mr. England has a large number of his inimitable Swiss views. This artist’s works are ever fresh and charming.”[21]

 

  • 1869. Manchester Photographic Society Exhibition, Memorial Hall, Albert-square. “Next in order came a number of views by Mr. England, illustrative of scenery on the Rhine. The character of Mr. England’s work is so familiar to the photographic world that it is unnecessary to say that his contributions were very excellent.”[22]

 

  • 1870. Manchester Photographic Society Exhibition, Memorial Hall, Albert-square, Manchester. The exhibit included 500 photographs from 45 different exhibitors. “Mr. W. England, a London artist, has sent a number of beautiful Swiss views.”[23]

 

“. . . and some very fine views on the Rhine, and of the more rugged beauties of Switzerland, are contributed by W. England, of London . . . in which the bold grandeur of the scenery is forcibly exhibited, form quite a collection; and the same may be said of the views of the Rhine, exhibited by Mr. William England, London.”[24]

 

  • 1870. Palais de l’Industrie, Champs Elysees, Paris, France. England exhibited as one of 15 photographers from his home country.[25]

 

  • 1871. International Exhibition. England displayed a series of landscapes.

 

  • 1872. 17th Photographic Society of London Exhibition. Number 303, “Photographs of Sculpture.” Number 304, “Halse’s ‘Advance Australia.’”

 

“Mr. England contributed only a few pictures, but they were quite worthy of him. There were eight views of statuary by this artist which possessed great beauty.”[26]

 

  • 1872. London International Exhibition. England exhibited a “frame of eight photos.”[27]

 

  • 1873. 18th Photographic Society of London Exhibition. Numbers 113, 114, 115, “Statuary of the International Exhibition, 1873.” Number 116, “The Albert Memorial.” Numbers 117, 118, 119, 120, “Statuary from the International Exhibition, 1873.” Number 516, “Cabinet Statuary for the Stereoscope (from the International Exhibition).”

 

“William England, who of late years has made statuary his especial study, shows some marvellous productions of the kind, soft and harmonious, and as solid apparently, as the originals; a graceful rendering of the Albert memorial is also exhibited by Mr. England.”[28]

 

  • 1874. 19th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 5, “Statuary in the International Exhibition, 1874 (12 subjects).”

 

“Mr. England shows a choice collection of photographs from statuary in the International Exhibition at present open. Being sole photographer in the “International” Mr. England has exceptional facilities for reproducing works of this description.”[29]

 

“Next to these, but yet unnumbered, appeared a series of twelve telling copies of marbles from the International Exhibition, by Mr. W. England – we presume a member of this Society’s Council.”[30]

 

  • 1874. Bengal Photographic Society Exhibition. England received a silver medal for his photographs of statuary. “On the reverse side of the same stand are a fine series of views in the Tyrol, Italy, Switzerland, and on the Rhine, by the well-known photographer, Mr. W. England. For transparency, relief, and pictorial effect these beautiful little photographs are unsurpassed by any in the exhibition.”[31]

 

“The admirable series of photographs of statuary by Mr. W. England merits particular attention for the delicacy and perfection of light and shade which characterize them. At first sight it would seem child’s play to photograph such subjects; but the manipulation of both negatives and prints, so as to produce the effect most suitable to each subject, and the proper direction of light and shade, so as to produce relief, and bring out the beauties of the work without deep black shadows on the one hand or flat blank whites on the other, demand considerable technical skill and artistic taste, and we quite agree with the judges that these beautiful pictures are worthy of the award of an extra silver medal.”[32]

 

  • 1874. International Exhibition, Albert Hall. “The views of Holland House are, we observe, from negatives taken by Mr. England. In addition to prints upon paper this company also exhibit a charming series of glass lantern transparencies of a most attractive tone.”[33]

 

“To Mr. William England has been entrusted the privilege of photographing the subjects in the present International Exhibition.”[34]

 

  • 1874. Photographic Society of France Exhibition, Palais de l’Industrie, Paris, France. England was awarded a medal. Other English medalists included Bedford, Johnson, Woodbury, D. Hedges and Brownrigg.[35]

 

  • 1875. 20th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Numbers 61, 62 and 63, “Copies of Oil-Paintings.” Numbers 64, 65, 66, “Copies of Sculpture.” Numbers 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, “Copy of a Painting.” Number 141, “Copy of Sculpture.” “Mr. England also contributes largely, his exhibits being confined to copies of paintings and sculpture. The latter will amply repay the most careful study, so skillfully has the lighting and general treatment been managed.”[36]

 

“Mr. England sends some very admirable reproductions from painting and sculpture; the excellence of his work causes regret that the paintings copied are in many cases so poor.”[37]

 

  • 1876. Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, United States. England displayed landscapes and sculpture, “some of them being fine in lighting and composition.”[38]

 

  • 1877. 22nd Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. England was awarded a medal “for the best Frame of Dry-Plate Photographs” for his Swiss views, numbers 26 to 34. Number 26, “Righi Staffel.” Number 27, “Valley of Grindelwald.” Number 28, “Interlaken.” Number 29, “Berne.” Number 30, “Pont du Chemin de Fer.” Number 31, “Lake of Thun.” Number 32, “The Jungfrau.” Number 33, “Berne.” Number 34, “On the Road to Grindelwald.” Number 84, “Grindelwald.” Number 85, “The Jungfrau.” Number 86, “The Jungfrau.” Number 87, “Thun.” Number 38, “On the Road to Lauterbrunnen.” Number 89, “Interlaken.” Number 90, “On the Road Grindelwald.” Number 91, “On the Road to Grindelwald.” Number 92, “Attenburg, near Burne.” Number 343, “Statuary.” Number 543, “Revolving Stereoscope, with Views taken, and exhibited by.”

 

“To ascertain what can be done with dry plates in the hands of a capable artist the visitor has only to examine a series of Swiss views by Mr. England (Nos. 26-34).”[39]

 

“Mr. William England, whose Swiss photographs are so widely known, is represented here by numerous examples, remarkable for their extreme distinctness of definition. These are from dry plates.”[40]

 

“Respecting the medal for the best frame of dry-plate photographs awarded to Mr. William England for his Swiss Views, the President said that as specimens of dry-plate work they were perfect; and when the various difficulties arising from local colour – affecting distances combined with the foreground colours of a totally different nature were considered, they showed that some mastery had been obtained over dry-plate work when put in competition with wet.”[41]

 

“Mr. England has produced his splendid collection of Swiss views, in which (though no information is given in the catalogue regarding it) we think we can trace the delicacy due to albumen in the sensitive film, combine probably in some way or another with bromide of silver.”[42]

 

“The Swiss views of W. England, which occur very early in the catalogue, cannot fail to charm the spectator. “The Road to Grindelwals” (34) is particularly tender.”[43]

 

  • 1877. Edinburgh Photographic Society Exhibition. “Mr. Wm. England has sent a series of very exquisite pictures from dry plates, consisting of views in Switzerland, Belgium, & c.”[44]

 

“A silver medal for the best landscape of 8 ½ x 6 ½ or under to Mr. Wm. England, 7 St. James’s square, Notting-hill, London, for his picture The Wetterhorn (No. 768), from a dry plate. Characteristics: fine aerial perspective, with both foreground and extreme distance in good keeping.”[45]

 

“In landscape photographs the Exhibition is very rich. If there are any who still have a doubt as to the suitability of dry plates for the very highest class of work in this direction, they have only to look at the exhibits of Mr. Wm. England to have the doubt dispelled. Hung together are six charming views in Switzerland, Italy, and Savoy, so soft, yet full of brilliant detail, and most perfect gradation, even when, as is generally the case, such difficult combinations as summer foliage and snow-clad mountains are included. Where all are so excellent, it is difficult to particularize; but we may mention “Monk and Eiger from St. Beatenburg” (No. 767) as a work of rare merit. The foreground is the bank of a lake, with finely-grouped trees on the right and left, and a few well-arranged figures in the centre. The middle distance includes groups of grand mountains, whose shadows are more or less indefinitely mirrored on the bosom of the lake, and, rising high behind all, are the beautiful snowy peaks so well known to travellers in the district.”[46]

 

  • 1877. West Riding of Yorkshire Photographic Society Exhibition, Belle Vue Hotel, Bradford. “The views of Swiss scenery shown by Mr. W. England in his well-known style need no comment.”[47]

 

  • 1878. 23rd Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 172, “View in the Avenue of Nations.” Number 173, “Monaco Pavilion in the Gardens.” Number 174, “English Country House. (erected by Collinson and Lock).” Number 175, “View in the Austrian Section.” Number 176, “Portuguese Pavilion, Avenue of Nations.” Number 177, “Exhibition, Principal Entrance.” Number 178, “Gateway of the Portuguese Pavilion.” Number 179, “Façade of the Spanish Pavilion.” Number 180, “View in the Gardens.” Number 181, “United States Pavilion.” Number 182, “View in the Gallery de Jena.” Number 183, “Spanish Pavilion.” Number 184, “View in the Avenue of Nations.” Number 185, “Gallery de Jena, Indian Section.” Number 186, “View in the Gardens.” Number 187, “French Fine Art Pavilion.” Number 188, “Swiss Pavilion.” Number 189, “View in the Pavilion of Fine Arts.” Number 190, “Pavilion of the Central States of America.” Number 191, “View in the Avenue of Nations.” Number 192, “Pavilion of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales (designed by Gilbert R. Redgrave).” Number 193, “Old English Mansion. (erected by Cubitt & Co.).” Number 194, “View of the Trocadero.” Number 349, “Transparencies.”

 

“A large collection of noteworthy photographs taken in Paris transport the sympathetic observer to the Great International Exhibition now open in that city. The twenty-three views of various interesting scenes in the World’s Fair, selected by Mr. England for exhibition, have been executed with all that care and skill for the possession of which Mr. England has obtained a world-wide reputation. Those who, on visiting the French Exhibition, have had to hurry past numerous beautiful architectural and other details are here enabled to revisit such scenes once more, pictorially, and dwell at leisure on the structural peculiarities of each.”[48]

 

  • 1878. Exposition Universelle, Paris, France. England served as a juror for the exhibition. He also displayed “a collection of views and sculpture” and “instantaneous views of the ceremony, having understood they had made applications for the necessary official permission to photograph generally the Exhibition.”[49]

 

  • 1878. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 46th Annual Exhibition. View numbers 658 to 672 titled “Views in Switzerland.”

 

“For the best landscape by the collodion emulsion process, size not less than 9 x 7 inches. First silver medal to W. England, for his splendid Swiss view, No. 666. Mr. England exhibits fifteen gems – views in Switzerland – all in his well-known style, possessing the highest artistic excellence. They are full of atmosphere – broad, yet exquisite in detail.”[50]

 

  • 1880. Bristol and West of England Amateur Photographic Association’s International Exhibition. “Mr. William England is also represented by a couple of dozen 12 x 10 Swiss views of magnificent quality. These, again, are produced from gelatine plates, and are equal, if not superior, to any of the artist’s work in the same class with wet collodion – and that, too, in those points where gelatine is usually supposed to be far inferior to collodion. The power possessed by gelatine, in capable hands, of rendering at once foreground and distance is well exemplified in Near Chamounix (No. 281) and Mount Blanc and the Valley of Chamounix (No. 286.) The strong shadows cast by the Swiss sun, which are so difficult to soften down in a photograph, are full of detail, and are rendered in perfect harmony with the delicate gradations of the distant snow-clad peaks. Surely the detractors of gelatine must, ere long, be convinced that it is the operator, and not the process, which should be blamed for the inferior results said to be produced by gelatine.”[51]

 

“Mr. William England and Mr. Bedford are too well known for their fine pictures to require dwelling on here . . . Those who do not quite realise the meaning of the words “breadth” and “atmosphere” could not study them better than in Mr. England’s pictures; these will at once reveal their full meaning.”[52]

 

  • 1881. 26th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 3 titled “The Pisevache, near Martigny, Switzerland.” Number 4 titled “Place de Beltir, Geneva.” Number 5 titled “Village of Zermatt.” Number 6 titled “Valley of Chamounix. (Landscape and clouds, taken with one exposure).” Number 7 titled “Matterhorn, Zermatt.” Number 8 titled “Matterhorn, Zermatt.” Number 9 titled “Matterhorn, Zermatt and Lake on the Riffleberg.” Number 10 titled “Mont Blanc: Village of Chamounix.” Number 11 titled “Mont Blanc Range.” Number 12 titled “St. Nicolas, Valley of Zermatt.” Number 13 titled “Mont Blanc Range.” Number 14 titled “Valley of Chamounix.” Number 15 titled “View on the Imperial Route.” Number 16 titled “Village and Valley of Chamounix.” Number 17 titled “Monument to the Duke of Brunswick, Geneva. (Clouds and view, one exposure).” Number 18 titled “View on the Imperial Route.” Number 19 titled “Pass of the Tete Noire.” Number 20 titled “Village of Chamounix.” Number 342 titled “Gorge St. Gervois, Savoy.” Number 343 titled “Gorge of Trient, Switzerland.”

 

“Mr. William England receives a medal for a series of Swiss views (Nos. 3 to 20), many of which we have reviewed before in connection with the late Bristol International Exhibition. The special feature of these pictures is the admirable manner in which the dark foregrounds are rendered in conjunction with the snowy peaks – in many cases miles distant – without producing heaviness in the one case or destroying the delicacy of detail in the other. Three views of The Matterhorn (Nos. 7, 8, and 9) especially show this. In The Village of Chamounix (No. 20) – in addition to the dark foreground and delicate distance – we have in the middle distance white houses partly in sunshine and partly in shade, which leave nothing to be desired on the score of rendering.”[53]

 

  • 1881. Manchester Photographic Society Exhibition. “. . . the soft and brilliant Alpine views of Mr. W. England, are as conspicuous here as at London . . .”[54]

 

  • 1882. Dundee and East of Scotland Photographic Association Exhibition. England exhibited landscape photographs of Swiss scenery. “Bronze Medal for second best series of (not fewer than six) Landscapes, of 8 1/2 x 6 1/2, or under: Mr. W. England, London.”[55]

 

“Mr. William England, London, exhibits some very charming specimens of Swiss scenery. The pictures are hung exactly on the line, and are well seen.”[56]

 

  • 1882. Third Convention of the Photographers’ Association of America. “Among the pictures from Europe was . . . a charming selection of Swiss pictures, by Mr. Wm. England.”[57] 

 

  • 1883. 28th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. England was awarded a medal for his work. Number 66 titled “Sulzeck Tunnel.” Number 67 titled “St. Gothard Railway.” Number 322 titled “Wasen in Winter. (Gelatine plates, own make).” Number 323 titled Three Brides at Wasen.” Number 324 titled “Wasen in Summer.” Number 325 titled “View at Wasen.” Number 326 titled “Railway Bridge over the Reuss.” Number 327 titled “View at Intsch.” Number 328 titled “View at Wasen.” Number 329 titled “Fluelin, Lake of Lucerne.” Number 330 titled “Amstaig.”

 

“Mr. William England’s Swiss views (Nos. 322-330), in his usual style, formed a feature amongst the landscapes, from which we select No. 329 as the best.”[58]

 

“A frame of lantern transparencies, by Messrs. England Brothers, possess a charming tone for effective exhibition on an enlarged scale, being of a rich purplish-black. Their views of Swiss scenery, from negatives by Mr. W. England, display great delicacy of gradation in the distances, with ample vigour in the shadows. They also exhibit some good transparencies of statuary.”[59]

 

  • 1883. Second International Exhibition of the Association Belge de Photographie, Palais des Beuax Arts, Paris, France. England was awarded a silver medal for Swiss mountain views. “Mr. W. England’s mountain scenery is, as usual, so charming that we could wish the pictures were larger, so that no visitor to the Exhibition might miss them.”[60]

 

  • 1884. 29th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 297 titled “Views in Switzerland.” England also served as Judge along with James Glaisher, William Bedford, William F. Donkin, John E. Mayall, William Mayland and Andrew Pringle.

 

“Mr. William England shows a single frame containing four late Swiss views, measuring something like 18 x 15. Mr. England’s work has been familiar to not only visitor to the annua exhibition, but to nearly the whole world, for years past; but, however good it has been previously, we are constrained to confess that his late venture into a large size seems to us to show better work than ever.”[61]

 

“Photography is fast advancing its claims to be regarded as an art as well as a scientific and mechanical process, and in place of the clear hard backgrounds and disproportionate dark foreground patches that used to characterize landscape scenery under the lens, it is now possible to represent mist-clad hills, delicate gradations of distance, and soft shadows. This is especially instanced in Mr. W. England’s beautiful views in Switzerland . . .”[62]

 

  • 1884. Sheffield Photographic Society Exhibition, Cutlers’ Hall. The annual exhibition opened on January 7, 1884.[63]

 

  • 1884. Glasgow Photographic Association Exhibition, Christian Institute.[64]

 

  • 1884. Newcastle-on-Tyne and Northern Counties’ Photographic Association. The exhibition was held at the College of Physical Science at Newcastle. England served as a judge along with W. Bedford, W. F. Donkin, J. E. Mayall, W. Mayland and Andrew Pringle.[65]

 

  • 1887. 32nd Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 242 titled “Four Views of Goring.” Numbers 362, 363 and 364 titled “Street Views of London (Taken from a Tricycle)”. England also served as Judge.

 

“William England (No. 362), Street Views of London.–This frame and two others contain small photographs taken from a tricycle. Here we have work by this well-known exhibitor which constitutes a departure from his usual Swiss scenes. The realistic part has been enriched by choosing moving objects, when they were in a position to add increased value to the streets and buildings depicted.”[66]

 

  • 1887. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society Exhibition. “Mr. W. England, of London, sends some small instantaneous pictures taken on a tricycle, which are very perfect and natural.”[67]

 

  • 1888. 33rd Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 581 titled “Revolving Stereoscope, with Slides.”

 

  • 1889. 34th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 687, “Revolving Stereoscope.” England also served as Judge.

 

  • 1889. Paris International Exhibition. England served as a juror, working as the foreman of the British photographic section, receiving the thanks of H.R.H., the Princess of Wales.

 

  • 1890. 35th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. England served as a Judge.

 

  • 1891. International Photographic Exhibition, Leeds. England served as a Judge along with A. Pringle, V. Blanchard, J. Gale and F. P. Cembrano.[68]

 

  • 1892. 37th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. “Slides by Mr. W. England.” England also served as Judge along with F. P. Cembrano, W. E. Debenham, F. Hollyer, and J. Traill Taylor.[69]

 

  • 1893. 38th Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition. Number 14 titled “Clouds descending the Valley. Taken from the Hotel du Lac Noir, Zermatt. (Bromide Enlargement).” Number 158 titled “View in the Zermatt Valley. (Bromide Enlargement).” Number 287 titled “Dome et Aguille du Goute, Chamounix. (Bromide Enlargement).” Number 297 titled “Glacier de Bossons, Chamounix. (Bromide Enlargement).”

 

“14, a bromide enlargement of descending clouds, by Wm England is noticeable for the fine rendering of the clouds.”[70]

 

  • 1893. Hackney Photographic Society Exhibition. England was awarded a silver medal for “open lantern slides.” “Other good work in the Class was shown by Messrs. W. England (The Matterhorn).”[71]

 

  • 1893. Lille Photographic Exhibition. England was awarded a silver medal for his Alpine studies.[72]

 

  • 1893. Bristol International Photographic Exhibition. England displayed a series of Alpine views.[73]

 

  • 1894. Royal Aquarium Photographic Exhibition. England displayed a series of Alpine views.[74]

 

  • 1894. Ealing Photographic Society Exhibition. England served as a judge.[75]

 

  • 1895. 40th Annual Exhibition of the Royal Photographic Society. Number 326 titled “Aiguille Verte, Chamonix.” Number 327 titled “Glacier die Boissons, Chamonix.” Number 328 titled “Mont Blanc from Argenterre.” Number 339 titled “View at St. Michel, Savoie.” Number 340 titled “View in Suterlaken.” Number 341 titled “Lake near Pontresina, Engadine.”

 

  • 1895. Leeds Photographic Society Exhibition, City Art Gallery, Leeds. The exhibit opened on September 24, 1895 and was expected to last approximately two months. The event was curated by George Birkett. “Mr. W. England shows several small Swiss views, which he has vignetted. Vignetted landscapes, however, do not meet with much favour [sic] nowadays, and the rarity with which they are produced makes them look all the more old-fashioned and, as it were, artificial.”[76]

 

  • 1895. Photographic Exhibition at the Imperial Institute, South Kensington. In the historical division, “some interesting old Daguerreotypes, shown by Mr. W. England.”[77]

 

  • 1895. Derby Photographic Society, Outdoor Meeting Competition. England served as a judge for the competition.[78]

 

  • 1895. Linked Ring, 3rd Annual Photographic Society, Dudley Gallery. “The vignetted subjects by W. England, in both the galleries, are excellent examples of good commercial topographic work, but they fail to interest one apart from their subjects.”[79]

 

  • 1896. 41st Annual Exhibition of the Royal Photographic Society. “In Memoriam, a portrait of the late William England (146), by Andrew Pringle, has a sad interest of its own in the exhibition which the sitter helped to prepare.”[80]

 

  • 1897. Imperial Victorian Loan Exhibition, Crystal Palace. “In the cases are to be seen one of the finest collection of Daguerreotypes ever got together . . . There are also instantaneous Daguerreotypes, one of New York Harbour, taken later on, lent, amongst others, by Mr. L. W. England, in which the frame of the paddle wheels of a steamer, and the waves, are as sharp as in modern work, as well as an excellent picture of Daguerre himself.”[81] Also displayed were the actual Daguerreotype equipment used by the late William England.

 

  • 1898. Royal Photographic Society Exhibition. “Yet work still unsurpassed, and instantaneous views even, were taken quite as good as those taken nowadays on gelatine plates. Examples of these, by the late Mr. William England and by Mr. Valentine Blanchard – taken 1856-1865 – are shown which prove it. Some of the primitive apparatus used in the Daguerreotype process and the calotype and wax-paper processes have been quite a source of amusement to some, yet withal the older workers managed to obtain excellent results with it, and it is doubtful if they could have surpassed them even with the most modern of apparatus, though, of course, they would have obtained them with for less inconvenience to themselves.”[82]
 

[1] “Exhibition Gossip. The Awards of the Jurors.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 9. August 1, 1862. Liverpool: Henry Greenwood, 1862. pp. 289-290.

[2] “Notes of the Month.” The British Journal of Photography.” Vol. 8. August 1, 1862. Liverpool: Henry Greenwood, 1862. p. 297.

[3] “Photographic Pictures.” Record of the International Exhibition, 1862. London: William Mackenzie, 1862. p. 576.

[4] “Glasgow Photographic Association.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 10. March 2, 1863. Liverpool: Henry Greenwood, 1863. pp. 103-106.

[5] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 9, No. 349. May 12, 1865. pp. 217-218.

[6] “The Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 12. June 9, 1865. London: Henry Greenwood, 1865. p. 305.

[7] “Photography at the Dublin International Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 9. August 25, 1865. London: Thomas Piper, 1865. p. 399.

[8] “Photography at the Dublin Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 12. October 6, 1865. London: Henry Greenwood, 1865. p. 512.

[9] “The Dublin Exhibition – Photographic Department.” The Journal of The Photographic Society of London. Vol. 10, No. 160. August 15, 1865. p. 123.

[10] “North London Photographic Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 9. September 29, 1865. London: Thomas Piper, 1865. p. 459.

[11] “Photographic Society of Scotland.” The British Journal of Photography. March 16, 1866. p. 128.

[12] “Paris Universal Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 14. August 23, 1867. London: Henry Greenwood, 1867. pp. 398-399.

[13] “Exhibition Soiree of the London Photographic Society.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 14. November 22, 1867. London: Henry Greenwood, 1867. pp. 555-556.

[14] “Photography at the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society.” The Photographic News. Vol. 12. May 1, 1868. London: Piper and Carter, 1868. p. 209.

[15] “Fine Arts Department.” The Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. The Thirty-Fifth Annual Report. 1867. Falmouth: Heard and Sons. 1867. p. 34.

[16] “Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” The Photographic News. Vol. 12, No. 532. November 13, 1868. London: Piper and Carter, 1868. pp. 541-542.

[17] “Lux Graphics on the Wing.” The Photographic News. Vol. 12. November 20, 1868. London: Piper and Carter, 1868.  p. 560.

[18] “Photographic Exhibition at Groningen.” The Photographic News. Vol. 13. August 20, 1869. London: Piper and Carter, 1869. p. 400.

[19] “Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society’s Report.” The Photographic News. Vol. 14. April 14, 1870. p. 180.

[20] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 13. December 10, 1869. p. 588.

[21] “The Exhibition of the London Photographic Society.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 16. November 18, 1869. p. 556.

[22] “Manchester Photographic Society.– Soiree and Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 16. March 5, 1869. p. 114.

[23] “Photographic Exhibition at Manchester.” The Photographic News. Vol. 14. March 4, 1870. pp. 106-107.

[24] “Exhibition of the Manchester Photographic Society. The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 17. March 11, 1870. London: Henry Greenwood, 1870. p. 114.

[25] “Correspondence.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 17. June 17, 1870. London: Henry Greenwood, 1870. p. 284.

[26] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 19. December 6, 1872. London: Henry Greenwood, 1872. p. 576.

[27] “West Quadrant. Engravings, Etchings, Lithographs, and Photographs.” London International Exhibition, 1872. London: J. M. Johnson & Sons, 1872. p. 103.

[28] “The Exhibition of 1873.” The Photographic Journal. October 21, 1873. pp. 2-3.

[29] “Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21. October 16, 1874. pp. 492-493.

[30] “The Annual Exhibition of the Photographic Society of Great Britain.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21. October 23, 1874. p. 510.

[31] “The Bengal Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21.  April 3, 1874. London: Henry Greenwood, 1874. pp. 162-163.

[32] “The Bengal Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21. April 3, 1874. London: Henry Greenwood, 1874. pp. 162-163.

[33] “Photographs at the International Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21. May 8, 1874. p. 219.

[34] “Photographs at the International Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21. April 10, 1874. London: Henry Greenwood, 1874. p. 169.

[35] “Medalists of the French Exhibition of Photographs.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 21. July 17, 1874. London: Henry Greenwood, 1874. p. 343.

[36] “The Photographic Exhibition. The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 22. October 15, 1875. London: Henry Greenwood, 1875. pp. 496-497.

[37] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 19. October 29, 1875. London: Piper and Carter, 1875. pp. 522-523.

[38] “English Photographs at the Philadelphia Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 23. September 22, 1876. pp. 453-454.

[39] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24, No. 910. October 12, 1877. pp. 487-488.

[40] “The Photographic Society of Great Britain.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24. October 26, 1877. p. 514.

[41] “Photographic Society of Great Britain.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24. November 16, 1877. pp. 547-548.

[42] “Opinions of the London Press on the Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24. November 23, 1877. p. 560.

[43] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 21. November 23, 1877. London: Piper and Carter, 1877. p. 557.

[44] “Edinburgh Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24, No. 870. January 5, 1877. London: Henry Greenwood, 1877. p. 3.

[45] “Edinburgh Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24. January 12, 1877. London: Henry Greenwood, 1877. p. 15.

[46] “Edinburgh Photographic Exhibition.” The Photographic News. Vol. 21. January 19, 1877. London: Piper and Carter, 1877. p. 32.

[47] “West Riding of Yorkshire Photographic Society.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 24. December 14, 1877. pp. 596-597.

[48] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 25. October 25, 1878. pp. 505-505.

[49] “The French Exhibition.–Meeting of the Photographic Society of France.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 25. May 10, 1878. Pp. 224-226.

[50] “Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 25. September 6, 1878. p. 426.

[51] “Bristol and West of England Amateur Photographic Association’s International Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 27. December 31, 1880. pp. 627-628.

[52] “Art Notes at the Bristol Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 28. January 14, 1881. London: Henry Greenwood, 1881. p. 17.

[53] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 28. October 14, 1881. p. 527.

[54] “The Manchester Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 28. December 2, 1881. pp. 624-625.

[55] “Exhibition of the Dundee and East of Scotland Photographic Association.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 29. February 10, 1882. p. 79.

[56] “Exhibition of the Dundee and East of Scotland Photographic Association.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 29. February 24, 1882. pp. 106-107.

[57] “Third Convention of the Photographers’ Association of America.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 29. September 8, 1882. pp. 520-522

[58] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 30. November 23, 1883. pp. 701-702.

[59] “Transparencies at the Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 30. November 9, 1883. p. 674.

[60] “The Second International Exhibition of the Association Belge de Photographie.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 30. September 7, 1883. pp. 526-527.

[61] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 31. November 14, 1884. London: Henry Greenwood, 1884. p. 724.

[62] “The Photographic Society of Great Britain.” Daily News (London). October 6, 1884. p. 6.

[63] “Sheffield Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 31. January 11, 1884. London: Henry Greenwood, 1884. p. 27.

[64] “Glasgow Photographic Association.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 31. February 22, 1884. London: Henry Greenwood, 1884. p. 125.

[65] “Newcastle-on-Tyne and Northern Counties’ Photographic Association.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 31. February 22, 1884. London: Henry Greenwood, 1884. p. 125.

[66] “The Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 34. November 4, 1887. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1887. pp. 692-693.

[67] “The Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 34. September 16, 1887. London: Henry Greenwood, 1887. p. 588.

[68] “Leeds Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 38. December 11, 1891. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1891. p. 800.

[69] “The Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 39. September 2, 1892. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1892. p. 565.

[70] “Photographic Society of Great Britain.” The Amateur Photographer. Vol. 18, July–December 1893. October 6, 1893. p. 221.

[71] “Hackney Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 40. October 27, 1893. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1893. p. 689.

[72] The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 40. June 30, 1893. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1893. p. 416.

[73] “Bristol International Photographic Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 40. December 22, 1893. London: Henry Greenwood, 1893. p. 812.

[74] “Photographic Exhibition at the Royal Aquarium.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 41. September 14, 1894. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1894. p. 586.

[75] “Ealing Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 41. November 30, 1894. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1894. p. 764.

[76] “The Leeds Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 42. September 27, 1895. pp. 615-616.

[77] “The Photographic Exhibition at the Imperial Institute.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 42. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1895. p. 332.

[78] “Derby Photographic Society.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 43. May 1, 1896. p. 286.

[79] “The Two Great Exhibitions.” Photograms of the Year. London: Dawbarn & Ward, 1895. p. 66.

[80] “The Great Exhibitions.” Photograms of the Year, 1896. London: Dawbarn & Ward, Ltd., 1896. p. 92.

[81] “The Photographic Exhibition at the Crystal Palace.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 44. May 14, 1897. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1897. p. 307.

[82] “Some Lessons of the Royal Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” The British Journal of Photography. Vol. 45. May 13, 1898. London: Henry Greenwood & Co., 1898. p. 306.

 


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